Spring is an important period in the life of every gardener. In addition, spring is a favorable time to fight diseases, pests, and most importantly, spring is the time of the year when preventive measures can be taken. All garden plantings can be roughly divided into three groups:
- pome fruits
- stone fruits
- berry bushes
There are common pests and diseases, but there are those that affect only plants of one group. We will find out what kind of spring treatment of the garden from pests and diseases is important and priority.
- Some insects are pests of garden crops and spring treatment against them
- Spring measures to combat diseases of garden plants
- Preventive measures against pests and diseases in the spring garden
Some insects are pests of garden crops and spring treatment against them
It is customary to refer to seed garden plants as those that have juicy fruits with seeds inside. From a botanical point of view, such a fruit is called an apple. Pome crops include:
- apple tree
Stone plants include plants if a solid bone is surrounded by pulp, these are:
Berry bushes in the garden:
The main pests of these crops are:
- pear sawfly
- apple fruit sawfly
- brown fruit mite
- glass case
Each of the pests causes significant harm to plants and can not only reduce the yield, but even leave them without fruits and berries.
Pear and apple sawflies
Pests from the order of Hymenoptera have a similar appearance and development cycle. An adult insect up to 1.5 cm long, has two pairs of wings. The apple sawfly differs from the pear color. The apple tree has darker veins on the wings and the upper body is brownish, the lower one is yellow, and the pear tree has a reddish body. The larva inflicts harm at any stage of development. Damages leaves and fruits.
They can destroy up to 80% of the crop. Hibernates in soil at a depth of 10 cm. Control measures:
- loosening or digging up the soil in early spring
- collection of damaged ovary and destruction by thermal action
- spraying before flowering with karbofos, actellik
The main preventive measure is to avoid gardening in damp areas.
Brown fruit mite
In appearance, a typical tick with a flat oval body of brown, brownish-red color. Body length no more than 0.6 mm. The larva harms buds and leaves. It prefers to eat on an apple tree, but can harm any garden culture. Infection usually occurs in the spring. Hibernates in the egg stage on the bark.
The fight consists in spraying with nitrafen, karbofos until the buds open. Re-spraying is carried out only after the end of flowering. Prevention consists in early spring whitewashing of trees with the addition of urea, as well as in the regular collection and destruction of damaged foliage.
A small butterfly, reminiscent of a wasp, a pest of currants, gooseberries. Females lay eggs on the surface of the bark. The appeared caterpillars through any damage, petiole fossa bite into the shoot and feed on its middle. They hibernate most often at the base of the shoots.
Departure in spring, before flowering. Signs of damage are poor leaf growth and wilting of shoots. It is dangerous in that it can damage up to 85% of the plantings, there are no resistant varieties yet.
There are no active chemical control agents. To prevent early spring, cut out all broken, weak, excess shoots and remove plant debris under the bushes. Treat the planting material with Nemobact. The number of species of insect pests of garden plantings is estimated in hundreds. It is important to carry out the following general preventive measures every spring:
- sanitary pruning
- removal and destruction of all plant debris
- early spring spraying in mid-March with urea, copper sulfate
- re-spraying on expanding buds or after the end of flowering
In addition to insects, plant diseases can also harm the garden.
Spring measures to combat diseases of garden plants
Most diseases of garden trees and shrubs are caused by microorganisms:
- microscopic fungi
To reduce the risk of infection, during any pruning of plants, including in spring, all cut points must be carefully processed. It is also good to cover all natural damage to the bark with garden varnish after the end of frost.
Garden Pest Control Videos:
Powdery mildew, scab and moniliosis
Garden plants, especially gooseberry and currant bushes, very often suffer from the fungal disease powdery mildew. To destroy the pathogen in early spring, before the leaves bloom, the bushes are treated with a nitrafen solution.
This fungus affects apple and pear trees, other plants. The disease is dangerous because it can reduce the yield by 50%. In addition, the pathogen spreads very quickly to healthy plants. Garden plantings are most often affected in very wet spring and summer. The fungus damages leaves, flowers, fruits. Scab is especially dangerous immediately after the young leaves open.
The leaves are covered with a brown bloom and fall off, from the leaves the infection passes to the fruits. Affected fruits grow lopsided. To eliminate the pathogen in the spring, two sprays with Bordeaux liquid are carried out. The first spraying is before bud break, the second after flowering. A similar treatment is carried out for the disease moniliosis or fruit rot. It's no secret that prevention is the best treatment.
Preventive measures against pests and diseases in the spring garden
An important preventive measure is the disinfection of garden tools after the fall season. Shovels, hoes, rakes must be cleared of the ground. Remove rust. Lubricate metal parts with machine oil and store in a cold room.
Wipe the working surfaces of secateurs, garden knives and scissors with any disinfectant liquid. All that can be washed is washed in a solution of caustic soda. The second important activity is the removal of all plant debris. This should be done as soon as the snow melts and the weather permits.
Sanitary pruning of all damaged shoots will also help keep pests and diseases out of your garden. It is important to carry out preventive spraying of garden plantings on time. In March, when the average daily temperature does not drop below + 5, trees and bushes need to be prepared for preventive spraying.
To do this, clean the tree trunks with a special brush. Remove all debris and prune damaged branches. For spraying, dilute 700 g of urea and 100 g of copper sulfate in 10 liters of water. This mixture is ideal for those occasions when the autumn garden work has not been carried out. The second spraying can be carried out before the buds open and take a Bordeaux liquid solution for it.
For this, 50 grams of copper sulfate and 200 g of quicklime are diluted in 10 liters of water. Taking into account the fact that on each type of garden plants several dozen parasites and pathogens can parasitize, then the spring preventive measures taken on time will help protect the garden from most of them.